Wednesday, January 6, 2016

IT (6): Computer Acronyms and jargon........

ACID: Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability (database properties)
ADT: Abstract Data Types
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
API: Application Program Interface (a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications)
ARGC: Argument count
ARGV: Argument vector
ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange
AWK: Aho Weinberger Kernighan
BOM: Byte order mark
CGI: Common Gateway Interface (Standard environment for web servers to interface with executable programs)
CLI: Command Line interface
CLI: Common Language Infrastructure
CMS: Content Management Systems (e.g. WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, Xibo)
DBM: Database management
DNS: Domain Name System
endl:  End of line (used for flushing the stream in C++)
EOF: End of file
EVM: Earned Value Management (tracks progress and future of a project)
fdisk: Fixed disk or format disk (used to create, resize, delete, change, copy and move partitions on a hard drive)
FIFO: First-in first-out
FOSS: Free and Open Source Software
FS: Field separator
FSF: Free Software Foundation
FTP: File Transfer Protocol
GCC: GNU Compiler Collection. A  compiler system (gcc)
GIMP: GNU Image Manipulation Program
GPL: General Public License
GUI: Graphical User Interface
GUID: Globally Unique Identifier
HRF: Human Readable Format
HTML: HyperText Programming Language
IDE: Integrated development environment
IFS:  Internal Field Separator  (Used by the parser for word splitting after expansion)
IGV: Integrative Genomics Viewer (Visualizing results)
IP: Internet Protocol
ISO: International Standards Organization
JSON: JavaScript Object Notation (a lightweight data-interchange format)
JVM: Java Virtual Machine
LAMP: Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP
LAN: Local Area Network
LDAP: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 
LIFO: Last-in first-out
LISP: LISt Processing
MD5: Message-Digit Algorithm (to create hash value)
MPI: Message Passing Interface
NF: Number of Fields
NoSQL: Not only SQL
NR: Number of Records
OFS: Output Field Separator
ORS: Output Record Separator
PAN: Personal Area Network
PID: Process Identification Number
RDBMS: Relational Database Management System
Scala: Scalable Language
sed: stream editor
SLOC: Source lines of code
SRA: Short Read Archive (Store NGS dataset)
SSH: Secure Shell (encrypted network protocol)
stdin : standard input
SVG: Scalable Vector Graphics
varchar: Variable-length Characters
VoIP: Voice over IP
##############Computer Jargon###############
Who said computation is boring?..Difficult sure it is but fun element is not lacking..
I like Greek mythology and literature...knowledge fascinates me..and so does computation jargons.
Access modifier: private (visible only inside class), protected (visible only inside subclass), public (can be accessed from anywhere)
Apache: A software foundation, most widely used web server
Balkanization: Fragmentation  into many smaller, uncooperative regions
Buffer: A hunk of memory to hold data
Clobbering: Overwriting the contents of a file or computer memory
Cloning: copying the exact version
Crawler: A program that visits websites and reads their pages
Currying: Translating functions with tuple arguments into function with single arguments
Cron: A job scheduler (cron job is task performed at regular intervals).
Daemon: In multi-tasking operating systems, it runs in the background
Data wrangling (data munging ): Changing data formats from one form to another, manipulating clumsy data
Defragmentation: To improve I/O operations (e.g loading, extracting)
Dependencies: Subordinate but essential things
Deprecated: Disapproved
Didactic: Intended to teach
Docker: It packages all softwares with all dependencies, i.e. enterprise application into one self-contained container, which runs on any environment. 
filehandles: A number that the operating system assigns temporarily to a file
fsck: File system consistency check
Globbing: Finding some patterns
GNU: GNU not Unix
Heuristic:From experience
inode: A data structure used to represent a filesystem object
Iterable: Any list, file, string which can be manipulated with for loop is iterable
Iterator: Can be iterated only once
MapReduce:  Software for processing and generating large data sets in parallel-manner
Metadata: Ancillary information, software revision information
Netfilter : A Linux OS firewall, controlled by iptables
Operator: a symbol to perform a job (arithmetic, relational, logical, bitwise, assignment)
Overhead: Excess computation time, memory, bandwidth and other resources for a rather simple goal
Overriding: Replacing a parent-implemented method by child class in Java
Parsing: Analyzing code into parts and describing their syntactic roles
Pipeline: Many commands put together in a script to achieve a result.
Readme file: contains information about other files in a directory or archive and is commonly distributed with computer software
Refactoring: The process of cleaning up a program to make it more usable or easier to understand or less complicated
regex: Language to describe patterns in strings
Regular expression: A pattern that describes a set of strings
Router: A device acting as a gateway,connecting two networks (e.g. connecting LAN to WAN)
Segmentation fault: when the program attempts to access memory it has either not been assigned by the operating system, or is otherwise not allowed to access.
shebang:  #!/bin/sh -x (Simple text files become Bash scripts when adding a shebang line as first line, saying which program should read and execute this text file)
Stub: Generated something, but left to be filled up
subroutine: A sequence of codes that perform a specific task and can be used in other programs
tarball or tarfile: A group or archive of files that are bundled together using the tar command and usually have the .tar file extension. If the tarfile is compressed using gzip command the tarball will end with tar.gz.
Webinar: web conferencing
Variable: Reserved memory locations to store values
VMware: Cloud and virtualization software
VoIP: Technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions
Zombie : A Process is  ‘Zombie’ if it has stopped but still active in process table

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